His boss, General “Hap” Arnold, urged him to adopt incendiary bombing against Japan’s cities and abandon the policy of precision bombing. [25] Elise K. Tipton, professor of Japan studies, arrived at a rough range of 75,000 to 200,000 deaths. The bombing of the Japanese city of Nagasaki with the Fat Man plutonium bomb device on August 9, 1945, caused terrible human devastation and helped end World War II. Accounts of the American justification for dropping a second bomb in Nagasaki. Strategic bombing, approach to aerial bombardment designed to destroy a country’s ability to wage war by demoralizing civilians and targeting features of an enemy’s infrastructure—such as factories, railways, and refineries—that are essential for the production and The choice then was to do nothing or try it and accept high US and allied casualties. Unissued / Unused material. R.G. Articles such as this one were acquired and published with the primary aim of expanding the information on Britannica.com with greater speed and efficiency than has traditionally been possible. [7][8], The key development for the bombing of Japan was the B-29 Superfortress strategic bomber, which had an operational range of 3,250 nautical miles (3,740 mi; 6,020 km) and was capable of attacking at high altitude above 30,000 feet (9,100 m), where enemy defenses were very weak. Japan. Firebombing also killed or made homeless many workers who had taken part in the war industry. [30][31], After the war, Tokyo struggled to rebuild. The work I provide is guaranteed to be plagiarism free, original, and written from scratch. An armada of 334 B-29 bombers followed from bases in the Mariana Islands, with 279 of them dropping 1,665 tons of incendiaries, including a half-million cylinders of napalm and white phosphorus. The Japanese later called this the “Night of the Black Snow.”. [2], Over 50% of Tokyo's industry was spread out among residential and commercial neighborhoods; firebombing cut the whole city's output in half. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks (1984), sfn error: no target: CITEREFMiller2001 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFKaracas2000 (, 1985 Narita International Airport bombing, a seaborne, small-scale air raid on Tokyo (the "Doolittle Raid"), "March 9, 1945: Burning the Heart Out of the Enemy", "Firebombs Over Tokyo: America's 1945 attack on Japan's capital remains undeservedly obscure alongside Hiroshima and Nagasaki", "Tokyo WWII firebombing, the single most deadly bombing raid in history, remembered 70 years on", "The Japanese Village at Dugway Proving Ground: An Unexamined Context to the Firebombing of Japan", "A Forgotten Holocaust: US Bombing Strategy, the Destruction of Japanese Cities & the American Way of War from World War II to Iraq", "9 March 1945: Burning the Heart Out of the Enemy", "This month in history: The firebombing of Dresden", "Bombings Worse than Nagasaki and Hiroshima", "1945 Tokyo Firebombing Left Legacy of Terror, Pain", Author sees parallels between prewar, nuclear indoctrination, "Fire Bombings and Forgotten Civilians: The Lawsuit Seeking Compensation for Victims of the Tokyo Air Raids 焼夷弾空襲と忘れられた被災市民―東京大空襲犠牲者による損害賠償請求訴訟", "Japanese government says 1945 Tokyo bombing was 'against humanitarian principles. The arrival of B-29 Superfortress bombers in 1944 gave the Americans the range to reach Japanese cities, first from bases in China and then from Pacific islands. A Fu-Go (ふ号[兵器], fugō [heiki], lit. The later U.S. bombing campaign against mainland Japan was slow to start. By the 14th the situation was no clearer and US bombing missions were resumed. The bomb was known as \"Little Boy\", a uranium gun-type bomb that exploded with about thirteen kilotons of force. [40], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}35°41′N 139°46′E / 35.683°N 139.767°E / 35.683; 139.767, Air raids by the US Army Air Forces in WWII. https://www.britannica.com/event/Bombing-of-Tokyo. In Japan, the US air war reached peak intensity with area bombing and climaxed with the atomic bombing of Japanese cities between the night of March 9-10 and Japan’s August 15, 1945 surrender. Questions or concerns? [3] The destruction and damage was especially severe in the eastern areas of the city. World War II was over. Bombing of Tokyo, (March 9–10, 1945), firebombing raid (codenamed “Operation Meetinghouse”) by the United States on the capital of Japan during the final stages of World War II, often cited as one of the most destructive acts of war in history, more destructive than the bombing of Dresden, Hiroshima, or … Their suit charged that the Japanese government invited the raid by failing to end the war earlier, and then failed to help the civilian victims of the raids while providing considerable support to former military personnel and their families. Prior to August 9, Nagasaki had been the target of small scale bombing by the United States. One aircraft landed in the neutral Soviet Union where the crew was interned, but then smuggled over the border into Iran on 11 May 1943. The air attack raid was one of the longest in the history of WWII. [34], In 2007, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe apologized in print, acknowledging Japan's guilt in the bombing of Chinese cities and civilians beginning in 1938. 19 February 1945: 119 B-29s hit port and urban area. Japan attack to Pearl Harbor is unprovoked and also without declaring war, which meant that at the time Japan attack Pearl Harbor, Japan and US is not in the state of war. RE: WW2 atomic bombing of japan : At LindasHelp I can do all your assignments, labs, and final exams too. Hiroshima and Nagasaki were two in Japan. The immediate effects of … By the 14th the situation was no clearer and US bombing missions were resumed. 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